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Evaluation of anti-gingivitis benefits of stannous fluoride dentifrice

among triclosan dentifrice users


Tao  He, dds, phd,  Matthew  L.  Barker, phd,  Aaron  Biesbrock, dmd, phd, ms,  Melanie  Miner, bs,

Pejmon  Amini, dds, C.  Ram  Goyal, dds  &  Jimmy  Qaqish, bsc


Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the anti-gingivitis benefits of a 0.454% highly bioavailable stannous fluoride dentifrice (SnF2) relative to a 0.3% triclosan/copolymer dentifrice (triclosan/copolymer) among triclosan/copolymer dentifrice users with residual gingivitis. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel group, 2-month clinical study. Self-reported triclosan/copolymer dentifrice users were recruited and provided with triclosan/copolymer dentifrice to use for 1 month. After this 1-month acclimation period, subjects who had residual gingivitis at the baseline visit were randomized to either the SnF2 dentifrice or the triclosan/copolymer dentifrice (positive control). Subjects performed their treatment unsupervised using their assigned dentifrice following manufacturers’ usage instructions for 2 months. The Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Modified Gingival Index (MGI) were used to measure gingivitis benefits at baseline and Month 2. An analysis of covariance was performed to compare treatment groups for the post-baseline scores as well as change from baseline, with the baseline score as a covariate. All comparisons were two-sided at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: A total of 150 subjects were randomized to treatment. Both treatment groups experienced significant reductions in number of bleeding sites, gingival bleeding index (GBI), and gingival inflammation (MGI) relative to baseline (P< 0.001). At Month 2, the SnF2 dentifrice group demonstrated significantly lower adjusted mean scores versus the triclosan/copolymer group for number of bleeding sites, GBI, and MGI (P< 0.001). Between-treatment group comparisons for change from baseline values showed that the improvement in number of bleeding sites from baseline for the SnF2 group was 49% greater versus that of the triclosan/copolymer group (P< 0.001), and the GBI and MGI improve-ments from baseline for the SnF2 group were 48% and 37%, greater, respectively, relative to the triclosan/copolymer group (P< 0.001). (Am J Dent 2013;26:175-179).



Clinical significance: The SnF2 dentifrice was significantly more efficacious than the triclosan/copolymer dentifrice in reducing gingivitis after 2 months among the triclosan users with residual gingivitis.



Mail: Dr. Tao He, Procter & Gamble Health Care Research Center, 8700 Mason-Montgomery Road, Mason, OH 45040, USA. E-mail:


Chewing gum containing allyl isothiocyanate from mustard seed extract is effective in reducing volatile sulfur compounds responsible for oral malodor


Minmin Tian,  phd, Anthony Bryan Hanley, phd, Michael W.J. Dodds, bds, phd  &  Ken Yaegaki, dds, phd


Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the in vivo effect of chewing gum containing allyl isothiocyanate alone, and in combination with zinc salts on reduction of the level of volatile sulfur compounds responsible for oral malodor. Methods: 15 healthy volunteers between the ages of 20-50 chewed either an experimental gum or a placebo gum for 12 minutes. Their mouth air was analyzed for volatile sulfur compounds by a gas chromatograph at baseline, immediately after chewing, and at 60, 120 and 180 minutes after treatment. Results: The study revealed that allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of mustard seed extract, can effectively reduce the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air. Chewing gum containing 0.1% zinc lactate and 0.01% of allyl isothiocyanate eliminated 89%, 55.5%, 48% and 24% of the total VSC concentration immediately after chewing and at 1, 2, and 3 hours after chewing, respectively. (Am J Dent 2013;26:180-184).


Clinical significance: Chewing gum containing low levels of allyl isothiocyanate can effectively reduce oral malodor. The effect is strengthened when allyl isothiocyanate is combined with a low level of zinc lactate.


Mail: Dr. Minmin Tian, Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company, 1132 West Blackhawk Street, Chicago, IL  60642, USA. E-mail:


Staining of dentin from amalgam corrosion is induced by demineralization


Johannes  D.  Scholtanus, dds,  Wietske  van der  Hoorn, bds,  Mutlu  Özcan, dmd, phd,

Marie-Charlotte D.N.J.M. Huysmans, dds, phd, Joost F.M. Roeters, dds, phd, Cornelis J. Kleverlaan, phd &  Albert J. Feilzer, dds, phd


Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effect of artificial demineralization upon color change of dentin in contact with dental amalgam. Methods: Sound human molars (n= 34) were embedded in resin and coronal enamel was removed. Dentin was exposed to artificial caries gel (pH 5.5) at 37ºC for 12 weeks (n= 24). Non-demineralized teeth served as controls (n= the 10). A dispersive high-Cu amalgam or conventional low-Cu amalgam was condensed onto dentin surfaces of all groups. After 10 weeks storage in saline, amalgam was removed and teeth were cut into three slices. Surfaces were inspected under optical microscopy and photographed. Results: Penetration of black pigments was observed in dentin underneath both high-Cu and low-Cu amalgams in demineralized specimens. Black deposits were unevenly distributed and observed predominantly in dentin near to pulp horns. Discoloration was not limited to outer demineralized dentin but extended beyond this zone. Evenly distributed bluish-green discoloration was observed underneath all high-Cu amalgam specimens independent of demineralization. (Am J Dent 2013;26:185-190).


Clinical significance: Deposition of black corrosion products into dentin was strongly related to dentin demineralization. An evenly distributed bluish-green discoloration from high-Cu amalgam was not related to demineralization. However, as black discoloration extended beyond the demineralized zone, it cannot serve as an indicator for demineralized dentin.


Mail: Dr. Johannes D. Scholtanus, Center for Dentistry and Oral Hygiene, Department of Periodontics and Conservative Dentistry, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713AV Groningen, The Netherlands. E-mail:


Effects of a novel fluoride-containing aluminocalciumsilicate-based

tooth coating material (Nanoseal) on enamel and dentin


Linlin Han, dds, phd  & Takashi Okiji, dds, phd


Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effect of a fluoride-containing aluminocalciumsilicate nanoparticle glass dispersed aqueous solution (Nanoseal) on enamel and dentin, under the hypothesis that this material can form insoluble mineral deposits that confer acid resistance to the tooth structure and occlude open dentin tubules. Methods: Labial enamel and dentin of human extracted incisors were used. Morphology of the enamel and dentin artificially demineralized with a lactic acid solution that before and/or after coated with the test material were analyzed with a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy electron probe microanalyzer with an image observation function (SEM-EPMA). Moreover, incorporation of the calcium and silicon by enamel and dentin were also detected with SEM-EPMA. Results: Application of the fluoroaluminocalciumsilicate-based tooth coating material resulted in the deposition of substances (nanoparticles) onto the enamel surface porosities and open dentin tubules on the artificial lesions. Prior coating with the test material reduced the demineralization-induced loss of enamel and dentin. Moreover, Ca and Si incorporation into superficial enamel and dentin was detected. (Am J Dent 2013;26:191-195).



Clinical significance: The fluoroaluminocalciumsilicate-based tooth coating material (Nanoseal) formed insoluble mineral particles that deposited onto the demineralization-induced surface porosities, penetrated into open dentin tubules, and increased the acid-resistance of the enamel and dentin. Such properties may confer this material dentin desensitizing and anti-caries activities.



Mail: Dr. Linlin Han, Division of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Department of Oral Health Science, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 5274 Gakkocho-dori 2-bancho, Chuo-ku, Niigata 951-8514, Japan. E-mail: han4378


Incomplete caries removal and indirect pulp capping in primary molars:

A randomized controlled trial


Ana Eliza Lemes Bressani, dds, msc, Adriela Azevedo Souza Mariath, dds, phd, Alex Nogueira Haas, dds, phd, Franklin GarcÍa-Godoy, dds, ms, phd, phd  &  Fernando Borba de Araujo, dds, phd


Abstract: Purpose: To compare the effect of incomplete caries removal (ICR) and indirect pulp capping (IPC) with calcium hydroxide (CH) or an inert material (wax) on color, consistency and contamination of the remaining dentin of primary molars. Methods: This double-blind, parallel-design, randomized controlled trial included 30 children presenting one primary molar with deep caries lesion. Children were randomly assigned after ICR to receive IPC with CH or wax. All teeth were then restored with resin composite. Baseline dentin color and consistency were evaluated after ICR, and dentin samples were collected for contamination analyses using scanning electron microscopy. After 3 months, restorations were removed and the three parameters were re-evaluated. In both groups, dentin became significantly darker after 3 months. Results: No cases of yellow dentin were observed after 3 months with CH compared to 33.3% of the wax cases (P< 0.05). A statistically significant difference over time was observed only for CH regarding consistency. CH stimulated a dentin hardening process in a statistically higher number of cases than wax (86.7% vs. 33.3%; P= 0.008). Contamination changed significantly over time in CH and wax without significant difference between groups. It was concluded that CH and wax arrested the carious process of the remaining carious dentin after indirect pulp capping, but CH showed superior dentin color and consistency after 3 months. (Am J Dent 2013;26:196-200).


Clinical significance: Indirect pulp capping with resin composite restorations resulted in the arrest of the caries process in primary teeth independently of the capping material used, demonstrating that a second access of deep cavities for removal of remaining carious dentin is not indicated.


Mail: Dr. Fernando Araujo, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2492, Porto Alegre-RS, 90035-003, Brazil.  E-mail:


Effect of resin composites with sodium trimetaphosphate with or without fluoride on hardness, ion release and enamel demineralization


Adelisa Rodolfo Ferreira Tiveron, dds, phd, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, dds, phd, Gabriel Gaban, dds, Kikue Takebayashi Sassaki, dds  &  Denise Pedrini, dds, phd, phd


Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the addition of sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) with or without fluoride on enamel demineralization, and the hardness and release of fluoride and TMP of resin composites. Methods: Bovine enamel slabs (4×3×3 mm) were prepared and selected based on initial surface hardness (n= 96). Eight experimental resin composites were formulated, according to the combination of TMP and sodium fluoride (NaF): TMP/NaF-free (control), 1.6% sodium fluoride (NaF), and 1.5%, 14.1% and 36.8% TMP with and without 1.6% NaF. Resin composite specimens (n= 24) were attached to the enamel slabs with wax and the sets were subjected to pH cycling. Next, surface and cross-sectional hardness and fluoride content of enamel as well as fluoride and TMP release and hardness of the materials were evaluated. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (P< 0.05). Results: The presence of fluoride in enamel was similar in fluoridated resin composites (P> 0.05), but higher than in the other materials (P< 0.05). The combination of 14.1% TMP and fluoride resulted in less demineralization, especially on lesion surface (P< 0.05). The presence of TMP increased fluoride release from the materials and reduced their hardness. (Am J Dent 2013;26:201-206).



Clinical significance: The increase of fluoride release and decrease of enamel mineral loss with minor changes in the material’s hardness obtained with an experimental resin composite containing fluoride and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) are promising results for further clinical evaluation.



Mail: Prof. Dr. Denise Pedrini, Integrated Clinic Discipline, Faculty of Dentistry of the Araçatuba Campus, UNESP, Rua José Bonifácio 1193, CEP: 16015-050, Araçatuba, SP, Brazil. E-mail:



Biochemical and microbiological characteristics of in situ biofilm formed

on materials containing fluoride or amorphous calcium phosphate


Lilian  Ferreira, msc,  Denise  Pedrini, dds, phd,  Ana  ClÁudia  Okamoto, dds, phd,

Elerson  Gaetti  Jardim  JÚnior, dds, phd,  TÁssia AraÚjo  Henriques, dds,

Mark  Cannon, dds, msc   &   Alberto  Carlos  Botazzo  Delbem, dds, phd


Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the biochemical and microbiological characteristics of in situ biofilm formed on materials that release fluoride (F-) or calcium (Ca++) and phosphate (Pi). Methods: This study comprised an in situ and in vitro experiment, utilizing three materials [Auralay XF and Fuji IX GP, containing fluoride, and Aegis containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)] and bovine dental enamel slabs. For the in situ: 10 volunteers wore palatal devices, each containing four material specimens or enamel slabs that were treated with 20% sucrose solution. The biofilm had pH measurements on Day 7 and the composition was analyzed on Day 8 by assessing the following: F-, Ca++, Pi and insoluble extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) concentrations, and then identification of the microbiota. For the in vitro: materials/enamel were subjected to a 7-day pH-cycling regimen to determine F-, Ca++ and Pi release. Results: The biofilm formed on F--releasing materials was richer in F-, Ca++ and Pi and had lower mutans streptococci counts than enamel biofilm. The biofilm on the ACP-containing material exhibited similar Ca++ and Pi concentrations to biofilm on F--releasing materials. The materials showed buffering action compared with enamel. Biochemical and microbiological characteristics showed a less cariogenic biofilm on materials containing fluoride or amorphous calcium phosphate. (Am J Dent 2013:26:207-213).


Clinical significance: The ions released by therapeutic pit and fissure sealants not only affect the hard tissue of the tooth but also influence the cariogenicity of the dental plaque.


Mail: Prof. Dr. Denise Pedrini, Integrated Clinic Discipline, Faculty of Dentistry of the Araçatuba, UNESP-Univ. Estadual Paulista, Rua José Bonifácio 1193, CEP: 16015-050, Araçatuba, SP, Brazil. E-mail:


Efficacy of diode laser in association to sodium fluoride vs Gluma desensitizer on treatment of cervical dentin hypersensitivity. A double blind controlled trial


Felice Femiano, md, phd, Rosella Femiano, dds, Alessandro Lanza, dds, Maria Vincenzo Festa, dds, Rosario Rullo, md  &  Letizia Perillo, md


Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the desensitizing efficacy of 2% sodium fluoride solution (NaF), diode laser (DL), a DL and NaF association and a solution of hydroxyl-ethyl-methacrylate and glutaraldehyde (HEMA-G: Gluma desensitizer) in cervical dentin hypersensitivity (CDH). Methods: 262 teeth of 24 subjects (16 females and eight males; age 21 to 64 years, mean 38 years), each having at least two CHD teeth for each quadrant, were included in this prospective, split mouth, clinical study. Teeth of each oral quadrant were randomized in four groups (SG) to study the effectiveness of NaF (SG-1), of DL (SG-2) NaF-DL combination (SG-3) and HEMA-G (SG-4). The subjects were asked to rate the sensitivity experienced during air stimulation by placing a mark on a visual analogue scale (VAS) before treatment (baseline), immediately after treatment, and after 1, and 6 months. Results: The outcomes showed a significant reduction of discomfort compared to baseline values for teeth of SG-3 immediately post treatment (82.6%) (P< 0.001), after 1 month (69.5%) (P< 0.001) and after 6 months (60.8%) (P< 0.001), respectively, compared with the reduction scores of 51.6% (P< 0.001), 29.7% (P< 0.05) and 4.7% (P> 0.05), recorded for SG-1; 72.2%, (P< 0.001), 62.5% (P< 0.001), and 47.2% (P< 0.05), recorded for SG-2; 77.4% (P< 0.001), 56.1% (P< 0.001), and 27.3% (P< 0.05), recorded for SG-4. (Am J Dent 2013;26:214-218).


Clinical significance: According to the results, the diode laser-fluoride combination showed higher efficacy in improving cervical dentin hypersensitivity-related pain compared to use of diode laser, sodium fluoride and Gluma Desensitizer immediately after treatment, at 1 month, and at 6 months follow up.


Mail: Dr. Felice Femiano, Via  Francesco Girardi 2, S. Antimo (NA)  80029, Italy. E-mail:


Bioactive dental restorative materials: A review


Liang Chen, phd,  Hong Shen, phd  &  Byoung in Suh, phd


Abstract: Purpose: To present an updated knowledge on the remineralizing dental restorative materials and their performance in vivo and/or in vitro. Methods: A search of English peer-reviewed dental literature over the last 30 years from PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted, and the key words included: remineralization, pulp capping, restoration, composite, cement, primer, bonding, adhesive, liner and sealant. Titles and abstracts of the articles listed from search results were reviewed and evaluated for appropriateness. Results: A variety of dental restorative materials are able to promote tooth remineralization and/or inhibit tooth demineralization. These remineralizing materials include fluoride- and/or calcium-containing pulp capping materials, bonding agents, resin composites, resin cements, glass-ionomer cements, and sealants. (Am J Dent 2013;26:219-227).


Clinical significance: Calcium-, fluoride-, and other remineralizing agents-containing pulp capping materials, resin composites, resin cements, glass-ionomer cements, adhesives, and sealants might promote tooth remineralization and inhibit demineralization around restorations.


Mail: Dr. Liang Chen, BISCO, Inc., 1100 W Irving Park Road, Schaumburg, IL 60193, USA. E-mail:


Breaking the fluoride diffusion barrier with combined dielectrophoresis

and AC electroosmosis


Chris S. Ivanoff, dds, Timothy L. Hottel, dds, ms, mba, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, dds, ms, phd, phd

&  Pratikkumar Shah, ms


Abstract: Purpose: To compare the deposition of fluoride particles into bovine enamel by diffusion (n= 20); dielectrophoresis (DEP) at 10 Hz and 5000 Hz (n= 10); and DEP (10 Hz and 5000 Hz) combined with AC electroosmosis (ACEO) at 400 Hz (DEP/ACE) (n= 10). Methods: Fluoride particle movements induced at 10, 400, and 5000 Hz frequencies, were analyzed with light microscopy and stack imaging in real time. Fluoride concentrations were measured at various enamel depths using wavelength dispersive spectrometry. Results were analyzed by ANOVA/Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc (P= 0.05). Results: Fluoride levels in teeth treated with DEP were significantly higher than diffusion at depths 10 and 20 μm. DEP and diffusion were relatively ineffective at greater depths. The highest fluoride concentrations at 10, 20, and 50 μm depths were found in the DEP/ACE group. After 20 minutes, DEP/ACE increased fluoride uptake by 600% at 50 μm and 400% at 100 μm compared to baseline levels (P< 0.05). Fluoride particle movement was induced by negative DEP at 10 Hz; positive DEP at 5000 Hz; and ACEO at 400 Hz frequency. (Am J Dent 2013;26:228-236).


Clinical significance: The study demonstrated that the coupling of DEP with ACEO can selectively concentrate fluoride particles from fluoride gel excipients and significantly enhance fluoride penetration into bovine enamel.


Mail: Dr. Chris Ivanoff, Department of Bioscience Research, College of Dentistry, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. E-mail:






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